Types of Diabetes and Its Potential Growth and The Need for an Urgent Cure.
Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar. It is caused by either a lack of insulin or the inability to use insulin properly. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder where the body’s immune system attacks and destroys beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes is caused by obesity and inactivity, as well as genetics.
Diabetes has become much more prevalent in the last two decades, particularly in young people. According to the International Diabetes Federation, around 463 million people were diabetic in 2019, and this number is expected to increase to 578 million by 2030.
Still, with proper management, patients can prevent cardiovascular sequelae including coronary heart disease, stroke, renal failure, and retinopathy.
Type 2 diabetes treatments currently focus on easing insulin resistance through lifestyle changes and medication. However, it is difficult to achieve adequate metabolic control with the current generation of treatments. Many patients ultimately fail to respond satisfactorily.
There is an imperative need for alternative strategies that normalize blood glucose levels and increase the treatment success rate. Recent meta-analyses have confirmed that alterations to gut microbiota composition contribute to the development of insulin resistance in humans.
A diminished presence of Firmicutes and higher levels of Bacteroidetes are found in Type 2 diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic individuals.
Altering gut microbiota composition through probiotics has attracted much attention among researchers seeking new means of controlling insulin resistance.
The Study on the Use of Probiotics on Diabetic Patients
37 subjects were randomly assigned into two groups receiving either L. Plantarum HAC01 or placebo. The intervention was conducted over an eight-week period, during which subjects received either L. plantarum HAC01 or placebo capsules at 4-week periods. All subjects were instructed to take one capsule per day after their main meal (breakfast, lunch, or dinner).
The following tests were done on the subject:
- Oral Glucose Tolerance
- Fecal Microbiota
- Fecal Short-Chain Fatty Acid
The Results of the Study on the Use of Probiotics on Diabetic Patients
Results in Fecal Microbiota showed that the probiotic group had a significant reduction in 2h-PPG and HbA1c levels after 8 weeks compared to the placebo group. However, other tests did not show any significant differences.
HbA1c (also known as hemoglobin A1c) test measures the amount of blood sugar (glucose) attached to hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of your red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body.
Two-Hour Postprandial Glucose, or 2h-PPG, is a blood test to measure if the body is creating enough insulin to control blood sugar levels.
This clinical study confirmed that an eight-week course of L. plantarum HAC01 supplementation significantly improved HbA1c and 2h-PPG levels relative to placebo in prediabetic subjects. This study suggests that L. plantarum HAC01 may have the potential to prevent Type 2 Diabetes with effective lifestyle management.